Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Skechers U.S.A., Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) designs, develops, markets and distributes footwear. The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) as codified in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain reclassifications have been made to the consolidated financial statements in prior years to conform to the current year presentation.
EFFECTS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON THE COMPANY’S BUSINESS
In March 2020, the Company temporarily closed its stores around the world and temporarily furloughed a meaningful portion of its hourly employees. The Company began reopening its stores in April 2020, and as of December 31, 2020, over 90% of the Company-owned retail stores have reopened. The Company continues to monitor and react to the COVID-19 pandemic, including conforming to local governments and global health organizations’ guidance, implementing global travel restrictions, and implementing “work from home” measures for many of its employees. The Company is actively monitoring and assessing the rapidly emerging government policies and economic stimulus responses to the COVID-19 pandemic around the world.
Although the Company has reopened the majority of its worldwide retail stores, the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic continues to negatively affect the Company’s results of operations. Many of the reopened retail stores continue to have temporarily reduced operating hours and less foot traffic, which has resulted in lower sales. Additionally, the reopening of stores and corporate offices required the Company to implement safety protocols, facilitate social distancing, enhance cleaning and sanitation activities, and provide masks and gloves to all employees. These safety processes and procedures have increased our costs to operate for the foreseeable future. Given the unprecedented impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had, the Company is unable to forecast consumer demand and store productivity. Whether and how quickly customers may resume shopping, and the effect of the pandemic on consumer behavior and spending patterns remains highly uncertain. The Company expects customer demand to be suppressed in the near term. In addition, it is possible that there will be an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases in the future, which could require the Company’s stores to close again and negatively impact the Company’s sales.
As the COVID-19 pandemic is complex and rapidly evolving, the Company’s plans as described above may change. The Company expects that the ongoing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting economic disruption may have a material adverse effect on its consolidated results of operations, financial position, and cash flows beyond fiscal year 2020.
USE OF ESTIMATES
The Company has made a number of estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities to prepare these consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP. Significant areas requiring the use of estimates relate primarily to revenue recognition, allowance for bad debts, returns, sales allowances and customer chargebacks, inventory write-downs, valuation of intangibles and long-lived assets, goodwill, litigation reserves and valuation of deferred income taxes. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
BUSINESS SEGMENT INFORMATION
The Company’s operations and segments are organized along its distribution channels and consist of the following: Domestic Wholesale, International Wholesale, and Direct-to-Consumer. Information regarding these segments is summarized in Note 13 – Segment and Geographic Information.
The Company derives income from the sale of footwear and royalties earned from licensing the Skechers brand. The Company recognizes sales revenue, net of estimated returns and excluding sales and value added taxes. Revenue is recognized at point of sale or upon shipment, the point in time where control transfers to the customer.
For North America, goods are shipped free on board (“FOB”) shipping point directly from the Company’s U.S. distribution center. For international wholesale customers, product is shipped FOB shipping point: (i) directly from the Company’s European distribution center; (ii) to third-party distribution centers in Central America, South America and Asia; or (iii) directly from third-party manufacturers to other international customers. For distributor sales, product is generally delivered directly from independent factories to third-party distribution centers or to distributors’ freight forwarders on a free named carrier basis. Wholesale sales are recognized upon shipment. Related costs paid to third-party shipping companies are recorded as cost of sales and are accounted for as a
fulfillment cost. Direct-to-consumer revenues are primarily generated from sales to customers at the Company’s retail stores recognized at the point of sale and sales made through its websites recognized upon shipment.
The Company earns royalty income from symbolic licensing arrangements in which third parties sell product with the Company’s brand. Upon signing a new licensing agreement, the Company receives up-front fees, which are generally characterized as prepaid royalties. These fees are initially deferred and recognized as revenue is earned (i.e., as licensed sales are reported to the Company or on a straight-line basis over the term of the agreement). The Company applies the sales-based royalty exception for the royalty income based on sales and recognizes revenue only when subsequent sales occur. The Company calculates and accrues estimated royalties based on individual agreement terms and correspondence with its licensees regarding actual sales.
ALLOWANCE FOR BAD DEBTS, RETURNS, SALES ALLOWANCES AND CUSTOMER CHARGEBACKS
The Company provides a reserve, charged against revenue and its receivables, for estimated losses that may result from its customers’ inability to pay. To minimize the likelihood of uncollectibility, customers’ credit-worthiness is reviewed and adjusted periodically in accordance with external credit reporting services, financial statements issued by the customer and the Company’s experience with the customer’s account. The Company determines the amount of the reserve by analyzing known uncollectible accounts, aged receivables, economic conditions in the customers’ countries or industries, historical losses and its customers’ credit-worthiness. Amounts later determined and specifically identified to be uncollectible are charged against this reserve. Allowances for bad debts are recorded to general and administrative expenses. Direct-to-consumer receivables represent amounts due from credit card companies and are generally collected within a few days of the purchase. The Company typically extends credit terms to its wholesale customers based on their creditworthiness and generally does not receive advance payments. Generally, wholesale customers do not have the right to return goods, however, the Company periodically decides to accept returns or provide customers with credits.
Sales and cost of sales are reduced by an estimate of customer merchandise returns, which is calculated based on historical experience. The Company also reserves for potential disputed amounts or chargebacks from its customers. The Company’s chargeback reserve is based on a collectability percentage calculated using factors such as historical trends, current economic conditions and nature of the chargeback.
WAREHOUSE AND DISTRIBUTION COSTS
The Company’s distribution network-related costs are included in general and administrative expenses. Distribution expenses, including the functions of purchasing, receiving, inspecting, allocating, warehousing and packaging product totaled $315.8 million, $276.4 million and $249.6 million for 2020, 2019 and 2018.
PRODUCT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT COSTS
The Company charges product design and development costs to general and administrative expenses. Aggregate product design and development costs were approximately $17.9 million, $16.8 million, and $18.5 million during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018.
Advertising costs are expensed in the period in which an advertisement first runs, or over the life of an endorsement contract. Advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018 was approximately $248.7 million, $297.1 million and $278.4 million. Prepaid advertising costs were $3.8 million and $6.4 million at December 31, 2020 and 2019. Prepaid amounts represent the unamortized portion of endorsement contracts, advertising in trade publications and media productions created, but not run.
The Company recognizes deferred tax liabilities for taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets for deductible temporary differences and operating loss carry‑forwards using enacted tax rates in effect in the years the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred income tax benefit or expense is recognized as a result of changes in net deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities. A valuation allowance is recorded when it is more likely than not that some or all of any deferred tax assets will not be realized.
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
Cash and cash equivalents include deposits with initial terms of less than three months. For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments.
Inventory, principally finished goods, is stated at the lower of cost (based on the first-in, first-out method) or net realizable value. Cost includes shipping and handling fees and product cost, which are subsequently expensed to cost of sales. The Company provides for estimated losses from obsolete or slow-moving inventory and writes down the cost of inventory at the time such determinations are made. Reserves are estimated based on inventory on hand, historical sales activity, industry trends, the retail environment, and the expected net realizable value. The net realizable value is determined using estimated sales prices of similar inventory through off-price or discount store channels.
Business acquisitions are accounted for under the acquisition method by assigning the purchase price to tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their fair values and the excess of the purchase price over the amounts assigned is recorded as goodwill. Purchased intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives. The purchase price allocation is subject to adjustment until the Company has completed its analysis within the measurement period.
In the first quarter of 2019, we purchased the minority interest in our India joint-venture for $82.9 million, which made our India joint-venture entity a wholly-owned subsidiary.
On April 1, 2019, the Company purchased a 60% interest in Manhattan SKMX, S. de R.L. de C.V. (“Skechers Mexico”), for total cash consideration of $120.6 million, net of cash acquired. Skechers Mexico is a joint venture operating and generating sales in Mexico. As a result of this purchase, Skechers Mexico became a majority-owned subsidiary and its results are consolidated in the consolidated financial statements beginning April 1, 2019. The Company completed its purchase price allocation during the first quarter of 2020. The total purchase consideration was allocated to the assets acquired of $248.7 million and liabilities assumed of $47.3 million based on their estimated fair values. The change to the provisional amounts resulted in a $22.1 million increase to goodwill, a $49.1 million increase to intangible assets and a $17.1 million increase to deferred tax liabilities. Additionally, the change to the provisional amounts resulted in a $13.9 million gain on reacquired rights and an increase in amortization expense and accumulated amortization of $7.0 million, of which $5.2 million relates to the prior year and an $8.0 million increase in inventory, of which $6.0 million relates to the prior year. The prior year amounts were not material to amortization expense or cost of sales within the consolidated statements of earnings for the year ended December 31, 2019. Acquisition-related costs of $0.9 million, associated with the acquisition, were expensed as incurred and included in general and administrative expenses in the condensed consolidated statement of earnings. The pro forma and actual results of operations for this acquisition have not been presented because they are not material.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had $93.5 million of goodwill with $91.9 million allocated to International Wholesale and $1.6 million to Domestic Wholesale. Goodwill is not amortized but is tested at least annually in the fourth quarter for impairment or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
The Company has amortizable intangible assets consisting of reacquired rights with a gross carrying value of $49.1 million and accumulated amortization of $12.1 million as of December 31, 2020. Purchased intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives. In addition to purchase price adjustments, amortization expense related to amortizable intangible assets was $6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. Future amortization expense related to amortizable intangible assets will be approximately $6.9 million per year for the each of the years 2021 through 2025. The weighted-average amortization period for amortizable reacquired rights is 7 years.
The Company has equity interests in several joint ventures that were established either to exclusively distribute the Company’s products throughout Mexico, Asia and the Middle East or to construct the Company’s domestic distribution facility. These joint ventures are variable interest entities (“VIE”), and the Company is considered the primary beneficiary. This determination is based on the relationships between the Company and the VIE, including management agreements, governance documents and other contractual arrangements. Specifically, the Company has both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of the entity that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance; and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE, or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the VIE. The assets and liabilities and results of operations of these entities are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements, even though the Company may not hold a majority equity interest. There have been no changes during 2020 in the accounting treatment or characterization of any previously identified VIE. The Company continues to reassess these relationships quarterly. The assets of these joint ventures are restricted, as they are not available for general business use outside the context of such joint ventures. The holders of the liabilities of each joint venture have no recourse to the Company.
FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION
The Company’s reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. Certain international operations use the respective local currency as their functional currency, while others use the U.S. dollar as their functional currency. Translation adjustments for subsidiaries with non-U.S. dollar functional currencies are included in other comprehensive income. Foreign currency transaction gains (losses), resulting from exchange rate fluctuations, on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are reported in earnings. Assets and liabilities of subsidiaries with non-U.S. dollar functional currencies are translated at the balance sheet date exchange rate. Net income (loss) and cash flow items are translated at the weighted-average exchange rates during the period. Translations of intercompany loans of a long-term investment nature are included as a component of translation adjustment in other comprehensive income.
FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The fair value hierarchy as defined by applicable accounting standards prioritizes the use of inputs used in valuation techniques into the following three levels:
The Company’s Level 1 investments primarily include money market funds and U.S. Treasury securities; Level 2 investments primarily include corporate notes and bonds, asset-backed securities, U.S. Agency securities, and actively traded mutual funds; and the Company does not currently have any Level 3 assets or liabilities. The Company has one Level 2 derivative instrument which is an interest rate swap related to the refinancing of its U.S. distribution center (see Note 6 – Financial Commitments) classified as other long-term liabilities. The fair value of the interest rate swap was determined using the market standard methodology of netting the discounted future fixed cash payments and the discounted expected variable cash receipts. The variable cash receipt was based on an expectation of future interest rates (forward curves) derived from observable market interest rate curves. Credit valuation adjustments were incorporated to appropriately reflect both the Company’s nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk in the fair value measurements.
The carrying amount of receivables, payables and other amounts arising out of the normal course of business approximates fair value because of the relatively short maturity of such instruments. The carrying amount of the Company’s short-term and long-term borrowings, which are considered Level 2 liabilities, approximates fair value based on current rates and terms available to the Company for similar debt.
The Company’s objectives in using interest rate derivatives are to add stability to interest expense and to manage exposure to interest rate movements. To accomplish this objective, the Company uses an interest rate swap as part of its interest rate risk management strategy. The Company’s interest rate swap, designated as a cash flow hedge, involves the receipt of variable amounts from a counterparty in exchange for making fixed-rate payments over the life of the agreements without exchange of the underlying notional amount. By utilizing an interest rate swap, the Company is exposed to credit-related losses in the event that the counterparty fails to perform under the terms of the derivative contract. To mitigate this risk, the Company enters into derivative contracts with major financial institutions based upon credit ratings and other factors. The Company continually assesses the creditworthiness of its counterparties. As of December 31, 2020, all counterparties to the interest rate swap had performed in accordance with their contractual obligations.
RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instrument,” (“ASU 2016-13”) which amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments; including, trade and other receivables, loans and held-to-maturity debt securities, to record an allowance for credit risk based on expected losses rather than incurred losses. The Company adopted ASU 2016-03 on January 1, 2020, and the adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13 Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, (“ASU 2018-13”) which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements, including the consideration of costs and benefits. The Company adopted ASU 2018-13 on January 1, 2020, and the adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15 Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract, (“ASU 2018-15”). ASU 2018-15 requires that issuers follow the internal-use software guidance in ASC 350-40 to determine which costs to capitalize as assets or expense as incurred. The guidance in ASC 350-40 requires that certain costs incurred during the application development stage be capitalized and other costs incurred during the preliminary project and post-implementation stages be expensed as they are incurred. The Company adopted ASU 2018-15 on January 1, 2020, and the adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, (“ASU 2019-12”). ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general income tax accounting methodology including an exception for the recognition of a deferred tax liability when a foreign subsidiary becomes an equity method investment and an exception for interim periods showing operating losses in excess of anticipated operating losses for the year. The amendment also reduces the complexity surrounding franchise tax recognition; the step up in the tax basis of goodwill in conjunction with business combinations; and the accounting for the effect of changes in tax laws enacted during interim periods. The amendments in this update are effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04 Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, as amended and supplemented by subsequent ASUs (collectively, “ASU 2020-04”), which provides practical expedients for contract modifications and certain hedging relationships associated with the transition from reference rates that are expected to be discontinued. This guidance is applicable for borrowing instruments, which use LIBOR as a reference rate, and is effective immediately, but is only available through December 31, 2022. The Company does not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef