The Company and Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|The Company and Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies||
Skechers U.S.A., Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) designs, develops, markets and distributes footwear. The Company operates 497 domestic and 303 international retail stores and direct-to-consumer business as of December 31, 2019.
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries. All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Certain reclassifications have been made to the consolidated financial statements in prior years to conform to the current year presentation.
The Company has made a number of estimates and assumptions relating to the reporting of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities to prepare these consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Significant areas requiring the use of estimates relate primarily to revenue recognition, allowance for bad debts, returns, sales allowances and customer chargebacks, inventory write-downs, valuation of intangibles and long-lived assets, goodwill, litigation reserves and valuation of deferred income taxes. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
In accordance with Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” (“ASU 2014-09”), the Company recognizes revenue when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to its customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The Company derives income from the sale of footwear and royalties earned from licensing the Skechers brand. For North America, goods are shipped Free on Board (“FOB”) shipping point directly from the Company’s domestic distribution center in Rancho Belago, California. For international wholesale customers product is shipped FOB shipping point, (i) direct from the Company’s distribution center in Liege, Belgium, (ii) to third-party distribution centers in Central America, South America and Asia, (iii) directly from third-party manufacturers to other international customers. For distributor sales, the goods are generally delivered directly from the independent factories to third-party distribution centers or to distributors’ freight forwarders on a Free Named Carrier (“FCA”) basis. The Company recognizes revenue on wholesale sales upon shipment as that is when the customer obtains control of the promised goods. Related costs paid to third-party shipping companies are recorded as cost of sales and are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and not as a separate performance obligation. The Company generates direct-to-consumer revenues primarily from the sale of footwear to customers at retail locations or through the Company’s websites. For in-store sales, the Company recognizes revenue at the point of sale. For sales made through its websites, the Company recognizes revenue upon shipment to the customer which is when the customer obtains control of the promised good. Sales and value added taxes collected from direct-to-consumer customers are excluded from reported revenues.
The Company records accounts receivable at the time of shipment when the Company’s right to the consideration becomes unconditional. The Company typically extends credit terms to its wholesale customers based on their creditworthiness and generally does not receive advance payments. Generally, wholesale customers do not have the right to return goods, however, the Company periodically decides to accept returns or provide customers with credits. Allowances for estimated returns, discounts, doubtful accounts and chargebacks are provided for when related revenue is recorded. Retail and direct-to-consumer sales represent amounts due from credit card companies and are generally collected within a few days of the purchase. As such, the Company has determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts for retail and direct-to-consumer sales is not necessary.
The Company earns royalty income from its licensing arrangements, which qualify as symbolic licenses rather than functional licenses. Upon signing a new licensing agreement, the Company receives up-front fees, which are generally characterized as prepaid royalties. These fees are initially deferred and recognized as revenue is earned (i.e., as licensed sales are reported to the Company or on a straight-line basis over the term of the agreement). The Company applies the sales-based royalty exception for the royalty income based on sales and recognizes revenue only when subsequent sales occur. The Company calculates and accrues estimated royalties based on the agreement terms and correspondence with the licensees regarding actual sales.
The Company considered several factors in determining that control transfers to the customer upon shipment of products. These factors include that legal title transfers to the customer, the Company has a present right to payment, and the customer has assumed the risks and rewards of ownership at the time of shipment. The Company accrues a liability for product returns at the time of sale based on historical experience. The Company also accrues amounts for goods expected to be returned in salable condition. As of December 31, 2019, and December 31, 2018, the Company’s sales returns liability totaled $86.5 million and $67.3 million, respectively, and was included in accrued expenses in the consolidated balance sheets.
Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 are presented under ASC 606, while prior period amounts are not adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with the Company’s historic revenue recognition methodology under ASC 605, Revenue Recognition.
Business acquisitions are accounted for under the acquisition method by assigning the purchase price to tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their fair values and the excess of the purchase price over the amounts assigned is recorded as goodwill. Purchased intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives. Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives are not amortized but are tested at least annually for impairment or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Fair value determinations require judgment and may involve the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including assumptions with respect to future cash inflows and outflows, discount rates, asset lives, and market multiples, among other items. The purchase price allocation is subject to adjustment until the Company has completed its analysis within the measurement period. In the second quarter of 2019, the Company purchased a 60% interest in Manhattan SKMX, de R.L. de C.V. (“Skechers Mexico”), for a total cash consideration of $100.7 million, net of cash acquired. Skechers Mexico is a joint venture that operates and generates sales in Mexico. As a result of this purchase, Skechers Mexico became a majority-owned subsidiary and the results are consolidated in the consolidated financial statements. The Company is in the final process of completing the purchase price allocation, which will be completed by April 1, 2020. However, the finalization may result in changes in the assets acquired and tax-related items. Pro forma results of operations have not been presented because the effects of the acquisition, individually and in the aggregate, were not material to the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The Company’s operations and segments are organized along its distribution channels and consist of the following: domestic wholesale, international wholesale, and direct-to-consumer sales. Information regarding these segments is summarized in Note 20 – Segment and Geographic Reporting.
The Company has equity interests in several joint ventures that were established either to exclusively distribute the Company’s products throughout Mexico, Asia and the Middle East or to construct the Company’s domestic distribution facility. These joint ventures are variable interest entities (“VIE”)’s under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 810-10-15-14. The Company’s determination of the primary beneficiary of a VIE considers all relationships between the Company and the VIE, including management agreements, governance documents and other contractual arrangements. The Company has determined that it is the primary beneficiary for these VIE’s because the Company has both of the following characteristics: (a) the power to direct the activities of a VIE that most significantly impact the entity’s economic performance; and (b) the obligation to absorb losses of the entity that could potentially be significant to the variable interest entity, or the right to receive benefits from the entity that could potentially be significant to the variable interest entity. Accordingly, the Company includes the assets and liabilities and results of operations of these entities in its consolidated financial statements, even though the Company may not hold a majority equity interest. There have been no changes during 2019 in the accounting treatment or characterization of any previously identified VIE. The Company continues to reassess these relationships quarterly. The assets of these joint ventures are restricted in that they are not available for general business use outside the context of such joint ventures. The holders of the liabilities of each joint venture have no recourse to the Company. The Company does not have a variable interest in any unconsolidated VIEs.
The accounting standard for fair value measurements provides a framework for measuring fair value and requires expanded disclosures regarding fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received for an asset or the exit price that would be paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. This accounting standard established a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs, where available. The following summarizes the three levels of inputs required:
The carrying amount of the Company’s financial instruments, which principally include cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, long-term investments, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates fair value because of the relatively short maturity of such instruments. The carrying amount of the Company’s short-term and long-term borrowings, which are considered Level 2 liabilities, approximates fair value based upon current rates and terms available to the Company for similar debt.
As of August 12, 2015, the Company entered into an interest rate swap agreement concurrent with refinancing its domestic distribution center construction loan (see Note 8 - Derivative Instruments). The fair value of the interest rate swap was determined using the market standard methodology of netting the discounted future fixed cash payments and the discounted expected variable cash receipts. The variable cash receipt was based on an expectation of future interest rates (forward curves) derived from observable market interest rate curves. To comply with U.S. GAAP, credit valuation adjustments were incorporated to appropriately reflect both the Company’s nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk in the fair value measurements. The majority of the inputs used to value the interest rate swap were within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. As of December 31, 2019, the interest rate swap was a Level 2 derivative and was classified as other long-term liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets.
Cash and cash equivalents include deposits with initial terms of less than three months. For purposes of the consolidated statements of cash flows, the Company considers all highly liquid debt instruments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
In general, investments with original maturities of greater than three months and remaining maturities of less than one year are classified as short-term investments. Investments consist of U.S. Treasury Bonds, U.S. Agency securities, corporate notes and bonds, asset-backed securities and actively traded mutual funds.
The Company provides a reserve, charged against revenue and its receivables, for estimated losses that may result from its customers’ inability to pay. To minimize the likelihood of uncollectability, customers’ credit-worthiness is reviewed and adjusted periodically in accordance with external credit reporting services, financial statements issued by the customer and the Company’s experience with the account. When a customer’s account becomes significantly past due, the Company generally places a hold on the account and discontinues further shipments to that customer, minimizing further risk of loss. The Company determines the amount of the reserve by analyzing known uncollectible accounts, aged receivables, economic conditions in the customers’ countries or industries, historical losses and its customers’ credit-worthiness. Amounts later determined and specifically identified to be uncollectible are charged against this reserve. Allowance for returns, sales allowances and customer chargebacks are recorded against revenue. Allowances for bad debts are recorded to general and administrative expenses. Retail and direct-to-consumer receivables represent amounts due from credit card companies and are generally collected within a few days of the purchase. As such, the Company has determined that no allowance for doubtful accounts is necessary.
The Company also reserves for potential disputed amounts or chargebacks from its customers. The Company’s chargeback reserve is based on a collectability percentage calculated using factors such as historical trends, current economic conditions, and nature of the chargeback receivables. The Company also reserves for potential sales returns and allowances based on historical trends.
The likelihood of a material loss on an uncollectible account would be mainly dependent on deterioration in the overall economic conditions in a particular country or environment. Reserves are fully provided for all probable losses of this nature. For receivables that are not specifically identified as high-risk, the Company provides a reserve based upon its historical loss rate as a percentage of sales.
Inventories, principally finished goods, are stated at the lower of cost (based on the first-in, first-out method) or market (net realizable value). Cost includes shipping and handling fees and costs, which are subsequently expensed to cost of sales. The Company provides for estimated losses from obsolete or slow-moving inventories, and writes down the cost of inventory at the time such determinations are made. Reserves are estimated based on inventory on hand, historical sales activity, industry trends, the retail environment, and the expected net realizable value. The net realizable value is determined using estimated sales prices of similar inventory through off-price or discount store channels.
Depreciation and amortization of property, plant and equipment is computed using the straight-line method, which based on the following estimated useful lives:
Property, plant and equipment subject to depreciation and amortization is reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. The Company reviews both quantitative and qualitative factors to assess whether a triggering event occurred. The Company reviews all stores for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances require it. The Company prepares a summary of store cash flows from its retail stores to assess potential impairment of the fixed assets, leasehold improvements, and operating lease right-of-use assets. Stores with negative cash flows which have been open in excess of 24 months are then reviewed in detail to determine whether impairment exists. Recoverability of assets or asset group to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset or asset group to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If the carrying amount of an asset or asset group exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset or asset group. The Company did not record impairment charges during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 or 2017.
Goodwill is assigned to reporting units. Goodwill is not amortized, but the Company assesses goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances require it. First, the Company determines if, based on qualitative factors, it is more likely than not that an impairment exists. Factors considered include historical financial performance, macroeconomic and industry conditions and the legal and regulatory environment. If the qualitative assessment indicates that it is more likely than not that an impairment exists, then a quantitative assessment is performed. The quantitative assessment involves calculating an estimated fair value of each reporting unit based on projected future cash flows and comparing the estimated fair values of the reporting units to their carrying amounts, including goodwill. If the estimated fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying value, including goodwill, no impairment is recognized. However, if the carrying amount of a reporting unit, including goodwill, exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess, limited to the total goodwill balance of the reporting unit. The quantitative assessment requires an analysis of several best estimates and assumptions, including future sales and operating results, and other factors that could affect fair value or otherwise indicate potential impairment. The Company also considers the reporting units’ projected ability to generate income from operations and positive cash flow in future periods, as well as perceived changes in consumer demand and acceptance of products, or factors impacting the industry generally. The fair value assessment could change materially if different estimates and assumptions were used.
The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740-10, which requires that the Company recognize deferred tax liabilities for taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets for deductible temporary differences and operating loss carry‑forwards using enacted tax rates in effect in the years the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred income tax benefit or expense is recognized as a result of changes in net deferred tax assets or deferred tax liabilities. A valuation allowance is recorded when it is more likely than not that some or all of any deferred tax assets will not be realized.
In accordance with ASC 830-30, certain international operations use the respective local currencies as their functional currency, while other international operations use the U.S. Dollar as their functional currency. The Company considers the U.S. dollar as its reporting currency. The Company operates internationally through several foreign subsidiaries. Skechers S.a.r.l. located in Switzerland, operates with a functional currency of the U.S. dollar. Translation adjustments for subsidiaries where the functional currency is its local currency are included in other comprehensive income. Foreign currency transaction gains (losses) resulting from exchange rate fluctuation on transactions denominated in a currency other than the functional currency are reported in earnings. Assets and liabilities of the foreign operations denominated in local currencies are translated at the rate of exchange at the balance sheet date. Revenues and expenses are translated at the weighted average rate of exchange during the period. Translations of intercompany loans of a long-term investment nature are included as a component of translation adjustment in other comprehensive income.
Comprehensive income is presented in the consolidated statements of comprehensive income. Comprehensive income consists of net earnings, foreign currency translation adjustments, and income attributable to non-controlling interests.
Advertising costs are expensed in the period in which the advertisements are first run, or over the life of the endorsement contract. Advertising expense for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 was approximately $297.1 million, $278.4 million and $260.4 million, respectively. Prepaid advertising costs were $6.4 million and $4.4 million at December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Prepaid amounts outstanding at December 31, 2019 and 2018 represent the unamortized portion of endorsement contracts, advertising in trade publications and media productions created, but not run, as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The Company charges all product design and development costs to general and administrative expenses, when incurred. Product design and development costs aggregated approximately $16.8 million, $18.5 million, and $18.8 million during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
The Company’s distribution network-related costs are included in general and administrative expenses and are not allocated to specific segments. The expenses related to its distribution network, including the functions of purchasing, receiving, inspecting, allocating, warehousing and packaging of its products totaled $276.4 million, $249.6 million and $219.6 million for 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-02 “Leases (Topic 842),” (“ASU 2016-02”). ASU 2016-02 is intended to increase transparency and comparability among organizations relating to leases. Lessees are required to recognize a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The FASB retained a dual model for lease classification, requiring leases to be classified as finance or operating leases to determine recognition in the earnings statement and cash flows; however, substantially all leases are required to be recognized on the balance sheet. ASU 2016-02 requires quantitative and qualitative disclosures regarding key information about leasing arrangements. This standard allows entities to initially apply the new lease standard at the adoption date and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The standard also provides for certain practical expedients. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2019, using the optional transition method and also elected to use the ‘package of practical expedients’, which allows the Company not to continue to reassess previous conclusions about lease
identification, lease classification and initial direct costs. The Company did not recognize any adjustment to opening balance of retained earnings.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instrument,” (“ASU 2016-13”). The new standard amends the impairment model to utilize an expected loss methodology in place of the currently used incurred loss methodology, which may result in earlier recognition of losses. Public business entities should apply the guidance in ASU 2016-13 for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those annual periods. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2016-13; however, at the current time the Company does not expect that the adoption of this ASU will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, “Income Statement – Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income,” (“ASU 2018-02”). The standard permits a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings for stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. Effective January 1, 2019, the Company adopted ASU 2018-02 and the adoption of ASU 2018-02 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13 “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement,” (“ASU No. 2018-13”), which modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements, including the consideration of costs and benefits. ASU 2018-13 is effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, but entities are permitted to early adopt either the entire standard or only the provisions that eliminate or modify the requirements. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2018-13; however, at the current time the Company does not expect that the adoption of this ASU will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15 “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract,” (“ASU 2018-15”). ASU 2018-15 requires that issuers follow the internal-use software guidance in Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 350-40 to determine which costs to capitalize as assets or expense as incurred. The ASC 350-40 guidance requires that certain costs incurred during the application development stage be capitalized and other costs incurred during the preliminary project and post-implementation stages be expensed as they are incurred. ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2018-15; however, at the current time the Company does not expect that the adoption of this ASU will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU no. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes,” (“ASU No. 2019-12”). The amendment removes certain exceptions to the general income tax accounting methodology including an exception for the recognition of a deferred tax liability when a foreign subsidiary becomes an equity method investment and an exception for interim periods showing operating losses in excess of anticipated operating losses for the year. The amendment also reduces the complexity surrounding franchise tax recognition; the step up in the tax basis of goodwill in conjunction with business combinations; and the accounting for the effect of changes in tax laws enacted during interim periods. The amendments in this update are effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2019-12; however, at the current time the Company does not expect that the adoption of this ASU will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef